In 682 CE (63 AH), Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr declared himself Caliph of Mecca and the people of Medina swore allegiance to him.  The admission is open to Muslims based on scholarships programs that provide accommodation and living expenses. In 627 CE (5 AH), Abu Sufyan led another force toward Medina.  Fakhri Pasha, governor of Medina, tenaciously held on during the Siege of Medina from 10 June 1916 and refused to surrender and held on another 72 days after the Armistice of Moudros, until he was arrested by his own men and the city was taken over by the Sharifate on 10 January 1919. ", "Whoever goes out until he comes to this mosque – meaning the Mosque of Quba' – and prays there, that will be equivalent to 'Umrah.". The Haramain High Speed Railway (HHR) came into operation in 2018, linking Medina and Mecca, and passes through three stations: Jeddah, King Abdul Aziz International Airport, and King Abdullah Economic City. However, the Meccans did not capitalise on their advantage by invading Medina and returned to Mecca. Muhammad marched out to meet the Qurayshi army with an estimated 1,000 troops, but just as the army approached the battlefield, 300 men under 'Abd Allah ibn Ubayy withdrew, dealing a severe blow to the Muslim army's morale. This period also coincided with an increase in scholarly activity in Medina, with scholars such as Ibn Farhun, Al-Hafiz Zain al-Din al-'Iraqi, Al Sakhawi and others settling in the city. 3, Book 30, Hadith 104), As of 2018, the recorded population was 2,188,138, with a growth rate of 2.32%. " (al-Bukhari, Vol. ... medina: Meaning and Definition of. It is reported that more than 400,000 people from around the world visit the complex every year. The foundations of the old city wall were found to be lower than the surface of accumulated silt and rubble, but no attempt has been made to examine the excavations from the archaeological point of view.  In 2015, the MMDA announced a three-line metro project in extension to the public transportation master plan in Medina. , The Sharif of Mecca, Husayn ibn Ali, first attacked Medina on 6 June 1916 CE or 4 Sha'aban 1334 AH, in the middle of World War I. The Jewish forces eventually surrendered. This name is also used to refer to the city in the popular folk song, "Ya Taybah!" Medina, arabisch مدينة عتيقة, DMG madīna ʿatīqa ‚Altstadt‘, ist die Bezeichnung für die Altstadt arabischer, meist nordafrikanischer Städte. Other mosques commemorate where he donned his armour for that battle; where he rested on the way thither, and where he unfurled his standard for the Battle of the Ditch (Al-Khandaq); and the ditch itself, dug around Medina by Muhammad, in which the rubble of the great fire during the reign (1839–61) of Sultan Abdülmecid I was dumped. The city has also been called Madinah in some ahadith.  Critics have described this as "Saudi vandalism" and claim that 300 historic sites linked to Muhammad, his family or companions have been lost in Medina and Mecca over the last 50 years. These include the three aforementioned mosques, Masjid al-Fath (also known as Masjid al-Khandaq), the Seven Mosques, the Baqi' Cemetery where the graves of many famous Islamic figures are presumed to be located; directly to the southeast of the Prophet's Mosque, the Uhud mountain, site of the eponymous Battle of Uhudand the King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex where most m… , Most modern historians accept the claim of the Muslim sources that after the revolt, the Jewish tribes became clients of the 'Aws and the Khazraj. Medina[a], officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (Arabic: المدينة المنورة, romanized: al-Madinat al-Munawwarah, lit. The old city's walls have been destroyed and replaced with the three ring roads that encircle Medina today, named in order of length, King Faisal Road, King Abdullah Road and King Khalid Road. Prior to Muhammad's arrival in Yathrib, the town was inhabited by both pagan Arabs and Jews. Trade improved and more people moved into the city. Definition of Medina (Entry 2 of 2) 1 \ mə- ˈdē- nə \ or Arabic Al Madīnah \ ˌäl- mä- ˈdē- nə \ city in western Saudi Arabia population 1,100,000 This flight (hijrah; sometimes transliterated Hegira) marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. Almost three times as high as Mecca, the city is situated at 620 metres (2,030 feet) above sea level. Edmund: Historic Cities of the Islamic World, p. 385 – "Half-a-century later, in 654/1256, Medina was threatened by a volcanic eruption. Under the Köppen climate classification, Medina falls in a hot desert climate region (BWh). , After defeating his Saudi foes, Muhammad Ali Pasha took over governance of Medina and although he did not formally declare independence, his governance took on more of a semi-autonomous style. Other religious features of the oasis include the mosque of Qubāʾ, the first in Islamic history, from which the Prophet was vouchsafed a view of Mecca; the Mosque of the Two Qiblahs, commemorating the change of the prayer direction from Jerusalem to Mecca, at al-Rimāḥ; the tomb of Ḥamza, uncle of the Prophet and of his companions who fell in the Battle of Uḥud (625), in which the Prophet was wounded; and the cave in the flank of Uḥud in which the Prophet took refuge on that occasion. Medina was the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim caliphate under Muhammad's leadership, serving as its base of operations and as the cradle of Islam, where Muhammad's Ummah (Community), composed of the citizens of Madinah, known as the Ansar and those who immigrated with Muhammad, known as the Muhajirun, collectively known as the Sahaba, gained huge influence. This only helps the King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Quran.  It is also includes the Hejaz Railway Museum. This is also the most commonly accepted modern name of the city, used in official documents and road signage, along with Madinah. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The highest of these hills is Mount Uḥud, which rises to more than 2,000 feet above the oasis. In anticipation of the plunder and destruction to follow, Fakhri Pasha secretly dispatched the Sacred Relics of Muhammad to the Ottoman capital, Istanbul.  In Yemenite Jewish sources, another treaty was drafted between Muhammad and his Jewish subjects, known as Kitāb Dimmat al-Nabi, written in the 17th year of the Hijra (638 CE), and which gave express liberty to Jews living in Arabia to observe the Sabbath and to grow-out their side-locks.  Ibn Khordadbeh later reported that during the Persian Empire's domination in Hejaz, the Banu Qurayza served as tax collectors for the Persian Shah. Established in 1985, the biggest publisher of Quran in the world, it employs around 1100 people and publishes 361 different publications in many languages. Its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, and whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins (bad deeds), then he will incur the curse of God, the angels, and all the people.". Bosworth,C. " (al-Bukhari, Vol. Farming and pottery making are important occupations.  In 1256 CE (Rajab 654 AH), Medina was threatened by lava from the Harrat Rahat volcanic region but was narrowly saved from being burnt after the lava turned northward. The Islamic cemetery of al-Baqīʿ (Baqīʿ al-Gharqad) was shorn of all the domes and ornamentation of the tombs of the saints at the time of the Wahhābī conquest of 1925; simple concrete graves in place of the old monuments and a circuit wall have been installed.